Wednesday, June 21, 2017

1000 Italian Words Sorted by Frequency of Use

This list contains the 1000 most frequent italian words, sorted by frequency.

Credits to wiktionary.

The full thing can be downloaded, for free, here: https://anonfiles.cc/file/570d420778a682be3ec83f42b2d10e75

Preview:

1. non

Etymology

From Latin nōn.

Pronunciation

             IPA(key): [non]

Adverb

non
1.          not
2.          un-

 

2. che

Pronunciation

             IPA(key): /ˈke/
             Hyphenation: che
             Rhymes: -e

Etymology 1

From Latin quid.[1], from Proto-Indo-European *kʷid, compare *kʷis.

Pronoun

che
1.          who
2.          what
3.          which

Etymology 2

From Latin quod, ultimately from Proto-Indo-European *kʷod-.

Conjunction

che
1.          that
2.          than
3.          when

References

               ^ Patota, Giuseppe (2002) Lineamenti di grammatica storica dell'italiano (in Italian), Bologna: il Mulino, ISBN 88-15-08638-2, page 139

 

3. di

Pronunciation

             IPA(key): /di/, [d̪i]
             Rhymes: -i
             Stress: dì
             Hyphenation: di

Etymology 1

From Latin (the name of the letter D).

Noun

di f (invariable)
1.          The name of the Latin-script letter D/d.; dee
See also
             (Latin script letter names) lettera; a, bi, ci, di, e, effe, gi, acca, i, i lunga, kappa, elle, emme, enne, o, pi, cu, erre, esse, ti, u, vu, doppia vu, ics, ipsilon, zeta (Category: it:Latin letter names)

Etymology 2

From Latin .[1]

Preposition

di
1.          of; ’s (but used after the thing owned and before the owner)
               L’ira di Apollo — “Apollo’s wrath” (literally, “The wrath of Apollo”)
               la coda del cane — “the dog’s tail”
               Canto dello sciatore — “Song of the skier”
               Dichiarazione Universale dei Diritti dell’Uomo — “Universal declaration of the Rights of [the] Man”
               Simbolo degli Apostoli — “Signs of the Apostles”
               Manifesto della cucina futurista — “Manifesto of the futurist kitchen”
               Dei delitti e delle pene — “Of [the] crimes and [of the] punishments”
2.          from
               Lei è di Monreale in Sicilia, ma adesso vive a Roma. — “She's from Monreale in Sicily, but she now lives in Rome”.
3.          by, of, ’s
               La mia canzone preferita degli U2? 'One' ! — “My favorite song by U2? 'One'!”
               La Divina Commedia di Dante Alighieri — “The Divine Comedy by Dante Alighieri” or “Dante Alighieri's Divine Comedy”
4.          than
               Jack è più alto di sua moglie, Joan. — “Jack is taller than his wife, Joan.”
               Biden ha detto che l'economia USA è in condizioni peggiori di quanto pensasse. — “Biden says US economy is in worse shape than he thought.”
5.          (in superlative forms) in, of
               Pont Neuf è il più antico ponte di Parigi. — “Pont Neuf is the oldest bridge in Paris.”
6.          about, on, concerning
               Euclide scrisse diversi libri di matematica. — “Euclid wrote many books on mathematics.”
               Parliamo di sentimenti. — “Let's talk about feelings.”
7.          (expressing composition) of, made of, in or more often omitted
               Sei Nazioni: la Scozia gioca con l'Italia in un incontro decisivo per il 'cucchiaio di legno' . — “Six Nations: Scotland meet Italy today in a wooden-spoon decider.”
               Ho comprato una collana d'oro bianco — “I bought a white gold necklace”.
8.          (followed by an infinitive) to or omitted
               Lei ha detto di non preoccuparsi. — “She said not to worry.”
               Che devo fare se penso di avere un virus nel mio computer? — “What should I do if I believe I have a virus on my computer?.”
9.          some
               Vuoi dell'acqua? — “Would you like some water?”
Usage notes
             When followed by the definite article, di combines with the article to produce the following combined forms:
             The i can additionally optionally be elided before vowel sounds to form d'.
Derived terms
Terms derived from di

See also

             da

References

               ^ Angelo Prati, ""Vocabolario Etimologico Italiano"", Torino, 1951

 

4. e

Pronunciation

             IPA(key): /e/
             Rhymes: -e
             Stress: é
             Hyphenation: e

Etymology 1

From Latin ē (the name of the letter E).

Noun

e f (invariable)
1.          The name of the Latin-script letter E/e.; e

See also

             (Latin script letter names) lettera; a, bi, ci, di, e, effe, gi, acca, i, i lunga, kappa, elle, emme, enne, o, pi, cu, erre, esse, ti, u, vu, doppia vu, ics, ipsilon, zeta (Category: it:Latin letter names)

Etymology 2

From Latin et.[1]

Alternative forms

             (before a vowel) ed

Conjunction

e
1.          and

See also

             ed

References

               ^ Angelo Prati, ""Vocabolario Etimologico Italiano"", Torino, 1951

 

5. la

Pronunciation

             IPA(key): /la/
             Rhymes: -a

Etymology 1

From Latin illa(m), feminine form of ille.[1]

Article

la f sg (plural le)
1.          the
Usage notes
             The article la elides with words that begin with a vowel, becoming l'.

Pronoun

la f sg (plural le)
1.          her (direct object)
2.          it (feminine)
               ...una improvvisa timidezza però la immobilizza... (Pasolini) - ...a sudden timidity immobilized her though...

Etymology 2

Noun


Italian Wikipedia has an article on:
La (nota)
Wikipedia it
la m (invariable)
1.          (music) la (musical note)
2.          (music) A (musical note and scale)
Derived terms
             la maggiore
             la minore

References

               ^ Patota, Giuseppe (2002) Lineamenti di grammatica storica dell'italiano (in Italian), Bologna: il Mulino, ISBN 88-15-08638-2, page 127

Anagrams

             al

 

6. il

Etymology

From the older form lo, via an intermediate form l, from Latin illum, ultimately from ille. The initial i is a svarabhakti vowel added to the form l in order to make the pronunciation easier.[1]

Pronunciation

IPA(key): /il/

Article

il m sg (plural i)
1.          the

References

               ^ Patota, Giuseppe (2002) Lineamenti di grammatica storica dell'italiano (in Italian), Bologna: il Mulino, ISBN 88-15-08638-2, pages 123, 124

Anagrams

             li,

 

7. un

Etymology

From uno, from Latin ūnus (“one”).

Article

un m (see uno)
1.          an, a

Noun

un m (see uno)
1.          one

Adjective

un m (see uno)
1.          one

Pronoun

un m (see uno)
1.          one

Anagrams


             nu

1000 French Words Sorted by Frequency of Use

This list contains the 1000 most frequent french words, sorted by frequency.

Credits to wiktionary.

The full thing can be downloaded, for free, here: https://anonfiles.cc/file/90416cbdc470db512742183583b438bd

This is the 1.0 draft, in the next draft I will enumerate the words (for example: 1.de 2.je 3.est ... and so on). They are not enumerated but they are sorted by frequency.

Preview:

de

Etymology

From Latin .

Pronunciation

             IPA(key): /də/
             Rhymes:

Preposition

de
1.          of (expresses belonging)
            1837, Louis Viardot, chapter I, in L’Ingénieux Hidalgo Don Quichotte de la Manchefr.Wikisource, translation of El ingenioso hidalgo Don Quijote de la Mancha by Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra:
            Dans une bourgade de la Manche, dont je ne veux pas me rappeler le nom, vivait, il n’y a pas longtemps, un hidalgo ....
            In a village of La Mancha, whose name I do not want to remember, lived, not long ago, an hidalgo ....
               Paris est la capitale de la France. ― Paris is the capital of France.
               En 1905, les églises devinrent la propriété de l'État. ― In 1905, churches became the property of the state.
2.          of (used to express property or association)
               Œuvres de Fermat ― Fermat’s Works
               Elle est la femme de mon ami. ― She is my friend’s wife.
               le voisin de Gabriel ― Gabriel's neighbor
3.          from (used to indicate origin)
               Elle vient de France. ― She comes from France.
               Êtes-vous de Suisse ? ― Are you from Switzerland?
               Ce fromage vient d’Espagne. ― This cheese is from Spain.
               C’est de l’ouest de la France. ― It’s from the west of France.
               Le train va de Paris à Bordeaux. ― The train goes from Paris to Bordeaux.
4.          of (indicates an amount)
               5 kilos de pommes. ― 5 kilograms of apples.
               Un verre de vin ― A glass of wine
               Une portion de frites ― A portion of fries
5.          used attributively, often translated into English as a compound word
               Un jus de pomme ― An apple juice
               Un verre de vin ― A glass of wine
               Une boîte de nuit ― A night club
               Un chien de garde ― A guard dog
               Une voiture de sport ― A sports car
               Un stade de football ― A football stadium
6.          from (used to indicate the start of a time or range)
               De 9:00 à 11:00 je ne serai pas libre.From 9 to 11 I won’t be free.
               Je travaille de huit heures à midi. ― I work from 8 o'clock to noon.
               un groupe de cinq à huit personnes ― a group of [from] five to eight people
7.          used after certain verbs before an infinitive, often translating into English as a gerund or an infinitive
               J’ai arrêté de fumer. ― I stopped smoking.
               Il continue de m’embêter. ― He keeps annoying me.
               Elle m’a dit de venir. ― She told me to come.
               Nous vous proposons de venir. ― We suggest you to come.
8.          by
               Boire trois tasses par jour réduirait de 20 % les risques de contracter une maladie. ― Drinking three cups a day would reduce the risk of catching an illness by 20%.

Usage notes

Before a word beginning with a vowel sound, de elides to d’. Before the article le, it contracts with the article into du, as shown in the example above. Before the article les, it contracts with the article into des.
Le Songe d’une nuit d’été — “A Midsummer Night’s Dream” (Literally, “The Dream of a night of summer”)
La queue du chien — “The dog’s tail”
Index des auteurs — “Index of the authors”

Article

de
1.          (indefinite) some; any (in questions or negatives)
               Je voudrais de la viande. ― I would like some meat.
               Est-ce qu'il y a de la bonne musique ? ― Is there any good music?
               Nous cherchons du lait. ― We're looking for some milk.
2.          (negative) a, an, any
               Elle n'a pas de mère. ― She does not have a mother.
               Il n'a pas de crayon. ― He does not have a pencil.
               Je n'ai pas de temps. ― I do not have any time.

Usage notes

In the positive, de is usually used with a definite article, as in the examples. In the negative, without an article.

Derived terms

             (contractions): d’, du, des

Anagrams

             ed, éd.

External links

             de” in le Trésor de la langue française informatisé (The Digitized Treasury of the French Language).

je

Etymology

From Old French jo, from Vulgar Latin *eo, from Latin ego, from Proto-Indo-European *éǵh₂. Near cognates include Spanish yo and Italian io. Further cognates include Ancient Greek ἐγώ (egṓ), Russian я (ya) English I, German ich, etc.

Pronunciation

             IPA(key): /ʒə/
             Rhymes:

Pronoun

je (first person singular, plural nous, object me, emphatic moi)
1.          I

Usage notes

             When several pronouns are included in the same sentence, it is considered impolite to say the pronoun je first; it must be the last one, and tu must be said after third persons (this applies also for toi and moi):
            Nous irons, Rose, toi et moi.
            You, Rose, and I will go.

Derived terms

             j'

Related terms

French personal pronouns

External links

             je” in le Trésor de la langue française informatisé (The Digitized Treasury of the French Language).

est

Etymology 1

From Old French, from Old English ēast.

Pronunciation

             IPA(key): /ɛst/

Adjective

est m, f (invariable)
1.          east

Noun

est m (plural est)
1.          east

Synonyms

             orient, levant

Etymology 2

From Latin est, ultimately from Proto-Indo-European *h₁ésti.

Pronunciation

             IPA(key): /ɛ/

Verb

est
1.          third-person singular present indicative of être
Derived terms
             c'est

Anagrams

             set, Ste., tes

External links

             est” in le Trésor de la langue française informatisé (The Digitized Treasury of the French Language).

pas

Etymology

From Latin passus. Its use as an auxiliary adverb comes from an accusative use (Latin nec...passum) in negative constructions – literally ‘not...a step’, i.e. ‘not at all’ – originally used with certain verbs of motion.

Pronunciation

             IPA(key): /pa/, /pɑ/

Noun

pas m (plural pas)
1.          step, pace, footstep
2.          (geography) strait (e.g., Pas de Calais, ""Strait of Dover"")

Derived terms

             à pas de loup

Adverb

pas
1.          (ne ... pas) not
               Je ne sais pas.‎ ― I don't know
2.          (colloquial) not
               J’veux pas travailler.‎ ― I don't wanna work.
               (abbreviation of: Je ne veux pas travailler.)

Derived terms

             pourquoi pas
             je ne comprends pas

Related terms

             passage
             passer

External links

             pas” in le Trésor de la langue française informatisé (The Digitized Treasury of the French Language).



1000 Spanish Words Sorted by Frequency of Use

This list contains the 1000 most frequent spanish words, sorted by frequency.

Credits to wiktionary.

The full thing can be downloaded, for free, here: https://anonfiles.cc/file/81b3246becf1cf18af18efc858d7eda2

Preview:

1. de

Pronunciation

             (after a pause, 'l', 'm', 'n' and 'ñ') IPA(key): /de/, [d̪e̞]
             (elsewhere) IPA(key): /de/, [ð̞e̞]

Etymology 1

Noun

de f (plural des)
1.          The name of the Latin-script letter D/d.

Etymology 2

From Latin .

Preposition

de
1.          of; ’s; used after the thing owned and before the owner
               Constitución española de 1812
               Spanish constitution of 1812
               la cola del perro
               the dog’s tail
2.          from
               Soy de España.
               I’m from Spain.
3.          of, from (indicating cause)
               Él murió de hambre.
               He died of hunger.
4.          used to construct compound nouns (with attributive nouns)
               campamento de verano
               summer camp
Usage notes
As illustrated in the example above, de combines with el to form del.
Derived terms
             del

Synonyms

             desde

 

2. que

Etymology

From Latin quid, from Proto-Indo-European *kʷid, compare *kʷis.

Pronunciation

             IPA(key): /ke/
             Homophone: qué

Conjunction

que
1.          that
               Él dice que está triste.
               He says that he/she is sad.
2.          than
               Estoy más tarde que tú.
               I am later than you.
3.          indicating a reason, roughly because
               ¡Ve más lento, que es resbaloso!
               Slow down, (because) it is slippery!
4.          indicating desire or permission
               ¡Que punza el globo!
               will you pop the balloon!

Pronoun

que
1.          who; that
               la estrella que está en la película - “the star who is in the movie”
2.          that; whom
               la mujer con que yo hablé - “the woman with whom I spoke”
3.          that; which
               la casa que yo quiero - “the house that I want”

Derived terms

             quehacer m

Related terms

             qué

See also

             q

 

3. no

Etymology 1

From Old Spanish non, from Latin nōn (compare Catalan no, French non, Italian no, Portuguese não, Romanian nu).

Pronunciation

             IPA(key): /no/

Adverb

no
1.          no
2.          not
Derived terms
             nonada f

Noun

no m (plural noes)
1.          no

Etymology 2

Contracted form of Latin numero, ablative singular of numerus (“number”).

Pronunciation

             IPA(key): /ˈnu.me.ɾo/

Abbreviation

№, No., no. (número)
1.          number

References

             no” in Diccionario de la lengua española, Vigésima tercera edición, Real Academia Española, 2014.

 

4. a

Pronunciation

             IPA(key): /a/
             Homophone: ha
             Rhymes: -a

Etymology 1

Letter

a (lower case, upper case A)
1.          The first letter of the Spanish alphabet, written in the Latin script.

Noun

a f (plural aes)
1.          Name of the letter A.
See also
             (Latin script letter names) letra; a, be, ce, de, e, efe, ge, hache, i, jota, ka, ele, eme, ene, eñe, o, pe, cu, ere, ese, te, u, ve, ve doble/uve doble, equis, ye, zeta (Category: es:Latin letter names)

Etymology 2

From Latin ad (“to”), from Proto-Indo-European *ád (“near; at”).

Alternative forms

             (obsolete) á
             (obsolete) à

Preposition

a
1.          to
            1605, Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra, Don Quijote de la Mancha1, Chapter I:
               Tenía en su casa una ama que pasaba de los cuarenta y una sobrina que no llegaba a los veinte, y un mozo de campo y plaza que así ensillaba el rocín como tomaba la podadera.
               He had in his house a housekeeper past forty, a niece under twenty, and a lad for the field and market-place, who used to saddle the hack as well as handle the billhook.
2.          by
3.          at
4.          Used before words referring to people, pets, or personified objects or places that function as direct objects: personal a.
               Lo busca a Usted.
               He is looking for you.
Usage notes
             Personal a is not translated into English.

See also

             Wikipedia article covering “personal a”

 

5. la

Etymology 1

From Old Spanish ela, from Latin illa(m), feminine singular of ille.

Article

la f sg (masculine el, feminine plural las, masculine plural los)
1.          the

Pronoun

la
1.          Accusative of ella, ello (when the antecedent's implied gender is feminine), and usted (when referring to a woman); her, it, you (formal)
2.          Impersonal neuter pronoun (accusative) in certain colloquial phrases: 'it', 'this'.
               La sabe toda.
               He/she knows everything (it all)
               ¡Dónde la viste!
               Where have you seen this!
               No te la creo.
               I don't believe you.
Usage notes
             Sometimes used where English would prefer a possessive: ""Tengo algo en la bolsa"" (literally, I have something in the bag) as opposed to ""Tengo algo en mi bolsa"". (I have something in my bag).

See also

             lo
             saberla
             pasarla
             jugársela
             buscarsela
             verla
Spanish personal pronouns
             Like other masculine Spanish words, masculine Spanish pronouns can be used when the gender of the subject is unknown or when the subject is plural and of mixed gender.

             If le or les precedes lo, la, los, or las in a clause, it is replaced with se (e.g., ""Se lo dije"" instead of ""Le lo dije"")
1 Not used with con; conmigo, contigo, and consigo are used instead, respectively
2 Treated as if it were third-person for purposes of conjugation and reflexivity
3 Depending on the implicit gender of the object being referred to
4 Used only in Spain

5 Used only in rare circumstances

Etymology 2

Noun

la m (plural las)
1.          (music) la (sixth note of the scale)
2.          (music) A (the musical note or key)
See also

             (musical notes) nota musical; do, re, mi, fa, sol, la, si (Category: es:Music)